Introduction, history, classification, principle & basic theory of
chromatography, Column adsorption chromatography, Partition chromatography, Band
broadening & column efficiency, factors affecting, Plate theory, Rate theory of
chromatography. Column Chromatography – High pressure liquid chromatography
(HPLC): Principle, instrumentation Apparatus, pumps, types of columns, packing and
characteristics of liquid chromatographic detectors-UV, IR detectors. Advantages and
applications of liquid chromatography.
Solvent Extraction: Definition, types, principle and efficiency of extraction. Sequence of
extraction process. Factors affecting extraction – pH, oxidation state, modifiers,
synergistic, masking and salting out agents. Techniques-batch and continuous
Ion-exchange Chromatography (IEC): Synthesis and types of ion-exchange resins.
Principle, factors affecting ion-exchange equilibria. Resin properties- ion-exchange
capacity, applications of IEC in preparative, purification and recovery processes.
Gas Chromatography (GC): Principle, comparison of GSC and GLC. Instrumentation,
Columns – packed and tubular. Study of detectors – thermal conductivity, flame
ionization, electron capture, GC-MS. Factors affecting separation, applications.
TLC and HPLC: Introduction, preparation of TLC plate, Basic principles, instrumentation
of HPTLC, application of HPTLC.